The history of computers runs to the past in the 1950’s when the computer processors were made from electrical relays and tubes. Towards the 1960’s, computer processors had already been outdone by the invention of the transistor. Computers that were fitted with the computer processors that had already evolved into the use of transistors were very bulky sometimes fitting into rooms. However, this was still minimal technology on the advancement of the computer processor; the transistor was a huge milestone and was used more reliably than earlier computer processor models.
Today, computers are a part of our lifestyle, but the first computer that was used was developed at the University of Pennsylvania in the year 1946! It had an ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) processor. The reprogramming feature that is so extensively used today, was introduced by Alan Turing and John von Neumann with their teams. The von Neumann architecture is the basis of modern computers.
From the development of the first microprocessor – Intel’s 4004 to the latest ones – the microprocessors have come a long way.
It is important to understand the main function of a computer processor. The name computer processor is derived from its core function, to analyze and process data. The latest computer processors achieve a speed of up to between 2.6 to 3.6 gigahertz. Machines that have the latest processors installed are the most efficient. Unlike computers of old times that were incredibly slow, modern day computers have been developed and designed to work with up to 7 processors. That is the marvel of technology. within the next two year, with this advancement in technology, computers that are capable of handling up to 10 processors will be developed.
Typically, the main parts of a CPU responsible for carrying out the operations are the arithmetical logical unit and the control unit. The ALU carries out arithmetic and logical operations and makes decisions, whereas the CU fetches, decodes and executes processes.
The most popular CPU manufacturers, as of 2014, are AMD and Intel. Initially, a CPU contained only one processor; then, Intel came up with the dual-core processor, a CPU containing two processors, also known as two cores. For over two decades, as of August 2014, both Intel and AMD have continued to develop and produce multiple core processors. These are quad core, hexa core and octo core, or four, six and eight cores, respectively.
Other characteristics for functional performance of a CPU are the clock speed and the number of instructions it can perform in a second.
Before looking at the different types of processors, it is compelling to look at major companies that are involved in the manufacture computer processors. Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) and Intel are the only two companies that are involved in the designing and developing of computer processors. Intel manufactures Celeron and Pentium processors. Celeron is widely used in home computers that are not designed to handle huge tasks. On the other hand, Pentium is mostly used in laptops and work computers that are needed to deliver efficiency. Intel processors are most notably used by HP and Dell corporations in the manufacture of their computer. Even though AMD can also be used in fabricated computer, you are bound to find it widely used in home computers or computers that are specially designed to perform a certain function. Good examples of specially designed computers include the ones used in hospitals to help run certain medical equipment correctly and those in large industries. In the Industries, just like hospitals, they are fitted to machinery and ultimately help them to function efficiently.
AMD or Advanced Micro Devices is a company that has been producing semiconductors, microchips, CPUs, motherboards, and other types of computer equipment for the last 40 years. That makes them the second largest company in this sector currently after Intel.
Intel, or the Intel Corporation, was founded a year earlier in 1968. Both companies were incorporated in Silicon Valley in the USA, and are leaders in research and development in the field. These multinational companies are also well known for developing production facilities in Asia, such as in Taiwan, China, Malaysia, and Singapore. Nevertheless, it is said their products are in use in every country where PCs are used.
Both AMD and Intel produce mother boards which are the circuitry at the base of all personal computers. AMD and Intel also create CPU or Central Processing Unit chips for the personal computer. While both are in the same industry but are always vying against each other for marketshare and technological changes.